Embracing The Unwanted: Beyond Lithium Ion?
Prof. Daniel Steingart
Stanley Thompson Associate Professor of Chemical Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering
Co-Director of the Columbia Electrochemical Energy Center
Columbia University, New York, NY
Friday, Sep. 20, 2019 @ 11:45 am - 12:45 pm
The commercialization of the lithium ion battery decades ago was remarkable in a few regards. To the consumer, the energy per unit mass/volume was doubled the state of the art of the time. To the battery researcher, it introduced a new way of engineering batteries: an (almost)
platform technology. While proton shuttle batteries (NiCd and NiMH cells) existed prior to the lithium ion system, the relative "simplicity" of lithium speciation in both the electrolyte and electrode ushered in a plethora of material combinations for the lithium shuttle. This also allowed battery scientists and engineers to focus on half-cell innovations, and then later combine the optimized half cell results into a full cell which would generally function as expected. The lithium concentration in the electrolyte was
constant, so aside from (unwanted) solvent reduction, the behavior of the electrolyte was also constant as a function of state of charge. But as with many innovations, many learnings and tribal knowledge from "coupled systems" were shelved, and academic battery research focused less on systematic Interaction and more on specific component behaviors. At the same time, environmentally critical applications demand more energy and power per unit mass, volume, and dollar. To meet this demand, the battery research community is exploring a world "beyond lithium ion" where the engineering conveniences of the ion-shuttle battery may have to be sacrificed for further improved performance. So what was overlooked? In this seminar we will examine (critically) the challenges of competing against incumbent lithium ion technology, and then regardless of technology how the chemical and mechanical behaviors in full cells can be more than the superposition of the individual active components of the cell. We will also explore exploitations of full system interactions can be such that two wrongs might make a right.
Daniel Steingart is the Stanley Thompson Associate Professor of Chemical Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering and the co-director of the Columbia Electrochemical Energy Center. His group studies the systematic behaviors of material deposition, conversion, and dissolution in electrochemical reactors with a focus on energy storage devices. His current research looks to exploit traditional failure mechanisms and unwanted interactions in batteries, turning unwanted behaviors into beneficial mechanisms. His efforts in this area over the last decade have been adopted by various
industries and have led directly or indirectly to five electrochemical energy related startup companies, the latest being Feasible, an effort dedicated to exploiting the inherent acoustic responses of closed electrochemical systems. Steingart joined Columbia Engineering in 2019 from Princeton
University where he was an associate professor in the department of mechanical and aerospace engineering and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment. Earlier, he was an assistant professor in chemical engineering at the City College of the City University of New York. Even earlier he was an engineer at two energy related startups. He received his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, in 2006.
PhD Candidate in Mechanical Engineering
Jeffrey Kysar, Alan West, and Anil Lalwani
Fabrication of precision metallic microneedles using template assisted
electrochemical deposition Microneedles are an attractive area of research
for applications that require minimally invasive delivery, sampling, or monitoring. The cochlea, or the inner ear, is an area of application for microneedles, particularly due to the inaccessible nature of it. Historically, this inaccessibility has made disorders of the inner ear very difficult to diagnose or treat. We have developed a method for precise additive manufacturing of fully metallic microneedles using two-photon lithography and electrochemical deposition, that provides the engineer with immense design freedom. Furthermore, this technique allows for prescribing the mechanical properties throughout the needle by manipulating the microstructure of the metal during deposition.
BIO: Aykut is a fourth-year Ph.D. student in Mechanical Engineering. His research lies in the intersection of Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Medicine. He is currently working to make precision
microneedles to better diagnose and treat inner ear disorders. He is co-advised by Prof. Jeffrey Kysar, Prof. Alan West, and Dr. Anil Lalwani.
Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow
Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment,
Low-cost grid energy storage: cost limits of lithium-ion batteries
Finding low-cost energy storage solutions is critical to minimizing the curtailment of renewable electricity generation and matching diurnal variations in electricity demand and production. Today’s lithium-ion battery costs are low enough to be economically competitive for short duration applications (4 hours or less), but are still too expensive for longer
applications. Cell design and material choices have a substantial influence on the manufacturing cost of lithium-ion cells, but with tradeoffs in round trip efficiency. Here, we model cell performance and manufacturing
costs to assess how improvements affect the levelized cost of stored electricity for long duration (8-16 hour) applications. We find that
for long-duration applications, charging and discharging efficiencies are high, and have relatively little impact on the levelized cost of storage. Using existing alternative cell designs can reduce costs to below $100/kWh, but capital cost, operation and maintenance expenses, and total electricity delivered play a large role in the levelized cost of storage.
BIO: Rebecca Ciez is a Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow at the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, where her research focuses on the technology and policy challenges of integrating energy storage for decarbonizing electricity, transportation, and industrial systems. She holds a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from Columbia University and a Ph.D. in Engineering and Public Policy from Carnegie Mellon University.
Modeling of Complex Inorganic Materials for Energy
Applications with First Principles and Machine Learning Models
Dr. Nongnuch Artrith
Friday, Oct. 11, 2019 @ 11:45 am - 12:45 pm
Many complex materials for energy applications such as heterogeneous catalysts and battery cathode materials have compositions with multiple chemical species and properties that are determined by complex structural features. This complexity makes them challenging to model directly with first principles methods. As an alternative, machine-learning techniques can be used to interpolate first principles calculations. Such machine-learning potentials (MLPs) enable linear-scaling atomistic simulations with an accuracy that is close to the reference method at a fraction of the computational cost. Here, I will give an overview of recent applications of
MLPs based on artificial neural networks (ANNs)  to the modeling of challenging materials classes, e.g., nanoalloys in solution , oxide nanoparticles , and amorphous materials [4,5]. The original multi-species ANN potential formalism  scales quadratically with the number of
chemical species. This has previously prevented the modeling of compositions with more than a few elements. To overcome this limitation, we have recently developed an alternative mathematically simple and computationally efficient descriptor with a complexity that is independent of the number of chemical species . The new methodology has been
implemented in our free and open source atomic energy network (aenet) package (http://ann.atomistic.net) [8-9]. This development creates new opportunities for the modeling of complex materials for example in the field of catalysis and materials for energy applications.
1. J. Behler and M. Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 146401 (2007).
2. N. Artrith and A. M. Kolpak, Nano Lett. 14 2670-2676 (2014); Comput. Mater. Sci. 110 20-28 (2015).
3. J. S. Elias, N. Artrith, et.al, and Y. Shao-Horn, ACS Catal. 6, 1675-1679 (2016).
4. N. Artrith, A. Urban, G. Ceder, J. Chem. Phys. 148, 241711 (2018), and arXiv 1901.09272 (2019).
5. V. Lacivita, N. Artrith, G. Ceder, Chem. Mater. 30, 7077–7090 (2018).
6. N. Artrith, T. Morawietz, and J. Behler, Phys. Rev. B 83, 153101 (2011).
7. N. Artrith, A. Urban, and G. Ceder, Phys. Rev. B 96, 014112 (2017).
8. N. Artrith and A. Urban, Comput. Mater. Sci. 114, 135-150 (2016).
9. N. Artrith, J. Phys. Energy 1, 032002 (2019).
Nong Artrith obtained her PhD in Theoretical Chemistry from Ruhr University Bochum, Germany (Prof. Joerg Behler) for the development of machine learning methods for atomistic models used in chemistry and materials science. Then, Nong was awarded an FFTF fellowship from Schlumberger Foundation (supporting women in STEM) for postdoctoral work at MIT with Prof. Alexie Kolpak, where she applied machine learning models to understand catalyst systems. Nong subsequently joined Prof. Gerbrand Ceder’s group at UC Berkeley as an associate specialist to develop machine learning models for amorphous electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. Currently, Nong is a research scientist in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Columbia University and is funded to 50% by the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Lab. In 2019, Nong has been named a Scialog Fellow for Advanced Energy Storage.
Understanding microstructural growth in Li metal batteries in the presence of additives
Prof. Lauren Marbella
Friday, Oct. 25, 2019 @ 11:45 am - 12:45 pm
Li metal batteries have the opportunity to enable high energy density technologies, including Li-air and all-solid-state batteries. However, Li metal anodes suffer from microstructural growth that leads to a loss of Coulombic efficiency and, in some cases, short circuiting and cell death. Here, we explore the use of an alkali metal additive, KPF6, that leads to smooth, bud-like Li deposits in Li-Li symmetrical cells instead of whisker-like morphologies. Using a combination of solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we investigate the role of K+ additives in altering the
composition and stability of the solid electrolyte interphase that forms on Li metal during cycling. Insight into the molecular-level differences in the interphase upon K+ addition allows us to rationalize how K+ and other alkali metal additives may mediate Li microstructural growth.
Prof. Lauren Marbella has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Columbia University since July 2018. Her research group focuses on using solid-state NMR and MRI techniques to characterize Li- and beyond-Li-ion batteries. Prof. Marbellareceived her Ph. D. in 2016 under the direction of Prof. Jill Millstone at the University of Pittsburgh. Following her Ph. D., she held a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Charles and Katharine Darwin Research Fellowship at Darwin College in the group of Prof. Clare Grey.
PhD Candidate in Chemical Engineering
Co-Advisors: Alan West and Alissa Park
Enhanced Extraction of Cu from Electronic Waste via Induced Morphological Changes using Supercritical CO2
Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste segments in the world. This study investigates the use of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and aqueous acid as co-solvent for the treatment of e-waste, specifically for the extraction of copper. Printed circuit board (PCB) was selected as the e-waste of study and is generally composed of 40% metals, 30% plastics, and 30% refractory materials. In order to perform controlled experiments, model metal and polymer laminates were prepared as surrogates for PCB, employing melt-pressed copper foil and polycarbonate sheets. The effects of scCO2 on the model composites were investigated in various scCO2
/co-solvent systems using a high-temperature, high-pressure reactor. It was found that a scCO2 and acid pre-treatment induced drastic morphological changes in the polymer, creating pores, cracks, and delamination. This finding was translated to the actual waste PCB system and an optimal two-step treatment scheme was developed and tested for small pieces of waste PCB. This unique process involved the pre-treatment of the PCB with scCO2 and aqueous sulfuric acid at 120 C and 148 atm followed by leaching of the treated PCB in a solvent containing 2 M sulfuric acid and 0.2 M hydrogen peroxide at ambient conditions. Experimental results showed that 82% of the copper contained in the PCB was extracted in under 4 hours. This novel process using scCO2 could reduce physical
processing (e.g. shredding of the PCB) and acid usage during the extraction of Cu from e-waste, providing a greener alternative for current
methods of recycling of metals, which are energy intensive with large environmental footprints.
BIO: Emily Hsu is a fifth-year Ph.D. candidate in Chemical Engineering at Columbia University. Her research is focused on exploring novel solvent systems for metal extraction from electronic waste with improved sustainability, and her research interests include urban mining, electrochemical processing, and mineral carbonation. She is co-advised by Prof. Alan West and Prof. Alissa Park.
Dr. Amir Zangiabadi
Director of Electron Microscopy Labs
Columbia Nano Initiative (CNI)
Electron Microscopy, Technique and Applications
In this talk Dr. Zangiabadi gives an introduction to the basics of electron microscopy including Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), then he describes some of the applications and capabilities of these devices. He also shows some
of the techniques in sample preparation that are necessary for better observation. At the end, he will present some of his past and present research projects that required Electron Microscopy for their completion.
BIO: Dr. Amir Zangiabadi is a director of Electron Microscopy Labs at the Columbia Nano Initiative (CNI), part of Columbia University. Previously he was a postdoc in the department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics for about a year, and he had a diverse research interest
in different types of materials; including, 2D materials, semiconductors, magnetic materials, electronic devices, etc. In 2016, he received his PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, Ohio.
1/18/19: Prof. Byungha Shin, KAIST
1/25/19: Nick Brady/Jack Davis, Ph.D. Student at Columbia
2/15/19: Daniel Esposito, Solar Fuels Engineering Lab at Columbia
3/1/19: Jake Russell/Anna Dorfi, Ph.D. Student at Columbia
3/15/19: Alex Couzis, CCNY/Urban Electric Power
4/26/19: Jon Vardner/Steven Denny, Ph.D. Student at Columbia
5/10/19: Qian Cheng/Brian Tackett, Ph.D. Student at Columbia